BY: MICHAEL C. CLARK

Coexisting on Earth Homo sapiens Quagmire

by: Michael C. Clark

©2018 Michael C. Clark

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means whatsoever, including photocopying, recording, or other electronic or mechanical methods without the prior written permission of the author, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical reviews, references in other literary works, and certain other noncommercial educational uses permitted by copyright law through fair use.

Published in the United States of America

First Edition

98765432 1

ALoganapithecus Production www. coexistingonearth. com

This Book is Dedicated to:

Maya Rain and all the children of the world, for it is the children that are the future, and this is what will truly change the world in a positive way.

and to

Loganapithecus, who was not my dog, but a companero that found me through fate.

Contents,

INTRODUCTION CHAPTER I.

Homo sapiens Lost Connection with Nature and the Aftermath

CHAPTER II.

Homo sapiens Excessive Footprint CHAPTER III.

Homo sapiens Depredation of Earth CHAPTER IV.

Denial of Global Warming and other Environmental Issues CHAPTER V.

Frankenstein Science and Attempting to Play God

CHAPTER VI.

The Conservation of Earth

CHAPTER VII.

The Future

CHAPTER VIII.

Going Back to Nature and Coexisting on Earth

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INTRODUCTION

Having explored and been fascinated with nature since childhood in the bayous of Louisiana and the deserts of Arizona, 1 have always asked questions like, why don’t more Homo sapiens see the beauty and perfection in the natural world? Why are Homo sapiens so immersed in civilization searching for something that is right in front of them in nature? Why are Homo sapiens so ruthlessly destroying the Earth? In 2010, 1 escaped the thralldoms of society and set off with my companero to explore the ecosystems of the western United States. 1 bought a video camera and began filming the nature 1 was encountering, but not in the traditional nature documentary sense of focusing on sensationalism and death while only filming one species. Instead, 1 filmed in cinema-verite style and shot everything, florae, faunae, weather, landscapes, geology, and even Homo sapiens depredations, in short everything 1 encountered. 1 did not bait, wait, or specifically seek out species, 1 simply explored and filmed what 1 discovered while hiking on foot.

Between July 2010 and November 2012, we explored 33 ecosystems in 11 western states filming more than 20,000 shots to ultimately produce 70 hours of documentary film. During those 2 years in the wilds of nature I contemplated much about not only nature, but about the civilized world 1 had left behind, and when we came out of the wilds of nature to resupply every few weeks 1 felt even more disconnected with society and that 1 had no real place in it. 1 could not understand how or why all this nature was just ignored by most and why so many were destroying the planet while so few were trying to preserve and study it. Eventually, I purchased a very remote property in the Chihuahuan desert of southwest Texas, where 1 set up an 18’ x 12’ cotton canvas tent with poles made from sotol and lived in a canyon for 2 years having very little contact with the outside world. It was about as close as one could get in today’s United States to that of the world which Henry David Thoreau, John Muir, and other eccentric outcasts of that era experienced, and the one which 1 had longed for all my life. It is remote in every sense of the word, 1 0 miles north of the Mexico border, the nearest neighbor was several miles away, the nearest town was a 45 -minute drive away, the nearest hospital 100 miles away, and the nearest Walmart 250 miles away. There is no light pollution, and on a clear night one can see the Milky Way Galaxy with the naked eye, one of the last places in the continental United States where this is still possible.

It was here after 1 5 years that my companero lived out his last days, and it was here that we finally made our home, coexisting in the wilds of nature making a very small footprint living naturally as we had done all along while on expedition. I finally edited all the nature footage shot on expedition combined with the footage which was shot while exploring the Chihuahuan desert ecosystem over 2 years and distributed it freely online. www.thenatureexplorers.com All the while still contemplating about civilization and the continuous depredation of Earth, and so, I began writing what eventually became the contents of this book. It was not originally intended to be a book, but more answers to my questions. Did I find any answers? I like to think so, and although there are many answers, my overall conclusion is that most Homo Sapiens have lost their connection with nature.

Reading this book, one may think it negative or pessimistic and that it is too critical of Homo sapiens. Some may have not yet evolved enough intellectually, spiritually, or morally and will most likely not agree with many of the points made in this book. Others will undoubtedly find some things in this book offensive to their way of life and will disagree with some of the points made, but as the adage goes, you can have your own opinion but not your own facts. Scientific facts are not lies but the truth. Hippocrates remarked,

“There are, in effect, two things: to know and to believe one knows. To know is science. To believe one knows is ignorance.”

Opinions do not change the facts which are within this book, nor do they alter the reality which surrounds you and the rest of the world right now, the reality which so many are oblivious to. The truth can sometimes hurt, especially to the ignorant and closeminded which do not see the reality of the world, and thus they are even more so reluctant to change. I can only say this to those individuals, examine the information presented in this book, thoroughly examine the references quoted, and perhaps you too will come to similar conclusions and ask some of the same questions which are in this book. You can show Homo sapiens reality through education and access to the scientific truth, but unfortunately you can't make them believe it, this they must do on their own with reason. Thomas Paine wrote,

"The most formidable weapon against errors of every kind is reason."

Many are bom into a world of lies and misconceptions, and if one wants to find out the truth they must seek it out on their own, too few fortunate individuals are exposed to the truth early on in life, if at all. Everyone surely knows of some type of social and environmental issues on Earth, and they may even be affected directly, but I would postulate that very few know the entire scope of what is covered in this book. My hope is that the reader will come away with a different perspective on the issues covered in this book, as I don’t think most realize the vastness and more importantly the severity of the issues, much less the true history of civilization. Many of the issues which are discussed in this book are unknown to most, they receive little to no news coverage by most of the mainstream news media, most politicians are not focused on solving these issues, and they are rarely if ever spoken about during the daily conversations of most average citizens. If the issues remain unknown to most, and there is no political and public discourse about these issues they will most likely take far longer to solve.

Many of the issues in the world today are caused from the majority of Homo sapiens lacking even a basic respect for Earth because they have no true connection with nature, being imprudent and having no forethought about what their negative actions will do, lack of basic environmental education, too much focus on materialism and greed, corrupt governments which are heavily influenced by polluting corporations, and environmental laws not being stringent enough or not being enforced at all. When Homo sapiens are not affected directly by an issue, they often do not know, and thus they do not care as it is out of sight and out of mind. Many individuals are not scientifically minded and do very little scientific reading, which results in much of society being extremely ignorant about critical scientific issues affecting the environment and society itself.

The CIA World Factbook states,

“The Intelligence Cycle is the process by which infonnation is acquired, converted into intelligence, and made available to

policymakers. Information is raw data from any source, data that may be fragmentary, contradictory, unreliable, ambiguous,

deceptive, or wrong. Intelligence is infomiation that has been collected, integrated, evaluated, analyzed, and interpreted.

Finished intelligence is the final product of the Intelligence Cycle ready to be delivered to the policymaker.

The three types of finished intelligence are: basic, current, and estimative. Basic intelligence provides the fundamental and factual reference material on a country or issue. Current intelligence reports on new developments. Estimative intelligence judges probable outcomes. The three are mutually supportive: basic intelligence is the foundation on which the other two are constructed; current intelligence continually updates the inventory of knowledge; and estimative intelligence revises overall interpretations of country and issue prospects for guidance of basic and current intelligence. The World Factbook, The President's Daily Brief, and the National Intelligence Estimates are examples of the three types of finished intelligence.”

I have attempted to follow this intelligence standard in writing this book and have gathered the latest data from the most reliable and reputable sources, and when applicable ensuring the data is from scientific sources that have directly observed and analyzed the subject, rather than an extremist or alarmist writer which has manipulated and exaggerated the data. There appears to be widespread exaggeration of statistical data regarding environmental and social issues by some non-profit organizations in what 1 can only imagine is their attempt to gain support by exasperating the issues, these sources have been eliminated entirely. It is very important to check all the facts on a subject before making any decisions, judgments, or speculations as there are many sources which glamorize facts in an attempt to make them sound even more spectacular than they really are. For instance, if someone were to say that some 200 flora and fauna species go extinct every year, it initially sounds like a very large number, but if one were to compare this number with the total number of identified and catalogued flora and fauna species, which is 1,200,000 the 200 number seems rather small. At this rate in 100 years 20,000 species would go extinct or 1.6%, which is a relatively small percentage of species. That is not to say that this number is not concerning, nor does it mean that nothing should be done to correct it, but it should not the focal point and it should be put into context with other data like the total number of species, is the species rare and there have never been more than 1 00 living on Earth at any given time, and ultimately what is causing the extinction.

When noted, some information in this book was sourced from Wikipedia and has not yet been verified, thus the information is ambiguous raw data and there may be some inaccuracies in this data, it is not finished intelligence. Many of the statistics in this book are only for the United States and not the world as none are available in many instances, and therefore the actual totals are most likely far greater when contemplating the issues on a global scale. Some of the issues are even greater in 3rd world countries, as they are so far behind the western world in conservation, recycling, education, etc. Some facts and even estimates are unavailable, or the data is extremely old. It makes one also wonder why so much important data is limited or hard to find in the age of information, why doesn’t the government publish data, even if it’s estimative intelligence, on every environmental and social issue for each year from the last 100 years? 1 have refrained from using number words like trillion, billion, or million when giving a statistic, as 1 feel number words such as these do not emphasize the reality and actual scale of things. Large number words seem to have become common place and are interpreted as just meaning allot and the reality of the actual number is not seen, 1 ,000,000,000,000 or trillion, 1 3 characters turns to 8, the word literally shrinks the size of the actual number and it has less impact, especially when attempting to visualize facts regarding subjects like population, pollution, death, etc.

1 was told when 1 was a kid, like so many others, that 1 asked too many questions and that 1 should accept some things simply for what they are. 1 would not accept this, and so 1 asked even more questions as 1 still do to this day. Some questions are simply unanswerable but are asked more to put the subject matter or amount of something into perspective, (e.g. How much oil has been used since it was discovered thousands of years ago? How much environmental damage has been done to Earth from all the oil ever extracted?) These types of questions are impossible to answer accurately or even estimate, but one could surmise that it is an enormous amount and that it has done allot of environmental damage. Other questions are self-explanatory and are simply asked to convey or emphasize a point. And some questions are unknowable at this stage but should be asked as they will be relevant in the future. This book by far does not cover every issue or all of Homo sapiens depredations, there are simply too many, not to mention some of which are not even known to anyone but those committing the destructive act. I have attempted to keep the composition of facts in this book intact by quoting the sources in exact detail in order to be as meticulous as possible. Anyone can reference any of the resources listed in the bibliography for additional information, and some sources can also be contacted with further questions.

About the cover photo: This image was taken on our last expedition of Series 4, the ‘El Rio De Las Animas Perdidas En Purgatorio Expedition in Colorado during November 2012. It was the last day of the expedition, winter was setting in, and the mornings were cold. We had just arisen from our chilly slumber when a vehicle arrived near our camp, and two males exited the vehicle with rifles entering the brush. About 30 minutes later we heard a gunshot, and then the loud yelping of a canine agonizing. About 1 0 minutes later the two men came back to their vehicle at which time 1 approached them, the canine endlessly yelping in the background. The first thing they did was anxiously boast about their recent murder in asking, “Did you hear us shoot we got one!” 1 responded, “1 hear a coyote yelping that sounds as though you shot it and left it to suffer and die.” Their excuse was that it deserved to suffer, that it was a filthy disgusting animal that should be extinct. They proceeded to explain how it was legal to kill coyotes, and although no one had asked them, they had taken up the task of killing coyotes on the weekends to help keep population numbers in check, and as an added bonus they got to kill coyotes for sport. They drove off with the coyote was still yelping in agony.

Over the next hour 1 heard several other coyotes in the distance calling, but to no avail, their companion would never answer their calls as it had been ruthlessly and senselessly murdered. About 20 minutes later, once the other coyotes had found their fallen pack member, they let out horrendous, violent, angry yelping noises that lasted some 10 minutes. As anthropomorphic as it may sound, it was as if they knew that their fellow species member had been murdered like so many others before it. 1 tracked where the two men had been ultimately leading me to the body of the dead coyote. During my two and a half years of filming the Western North American Ecosystems 1 always wanted to get footage of a coyote, which is quite difficult in the wild as they are very elusive and nocturnal. This was the only picture that 1 ever took of a coyote, and to me personally, it is a perfect representation of the quagmire Homo sapiens have with coexisting on Earth.

About the first edition: 1 have contacted numerous publishers and am told the traditional publishing process is a slow one and that it could take up to a year or more to release the book, if at all. This book has not been proofread by an editor or anyone else, my forte is not writing, and I can be extremely long-winded at times. So, if the reader would be so kind as to forgive the author in advance for the grammatical errors and the unordered bibliography. Although the book is not complete in this sense, 1 am releasing the book, as is, with the errors intact, as 1 feel, due to the subject matter being discussed it is imperative to release now. This book is a work in progress, and there will no doubt be revised editions in the future which will contain grammatical corrections as well as additional statistical information. But the data and message of the book, as is, will be clear to most if they can simply look past the grammatical errors and focus more on the message being discussed. Not to justify these errors in any way, but other authors are notorious for having used bad grammar, (e.g. Charles Dickens for using run-on sentences, E.E. Cummings for not capitalizing words, H. L. Mencken for incomplete sentences, William Faulkner for starting a sentence with a conjunction, Jane Austen for using double negatives, William Shakespeare for ending a sentence with a preposition, and more recently E. L. James's ‘Fifty Shades of Grey also contained numerous grammatical errors)

CHAPTER I.

Homo sapiens Lost Connection with Nature and the Aftermath

Agriculture and the Origins of Modern Civilization

‘It's not a perfect world’ is an axiom that most Homo sapiens would not argue with, but the Earth was nearly perfect, from a perspective of nature and the ecosystems which other biota inhabit, and this time was not in the too distant past. A relatively perfect, balanced, and flawless system with few depredations done by Homo sapiens, mainly the extinction of some large fauna species during the Pleistocene era caused by overhunting and destruction of habitat, which coincided with Homo sapiens colonization of Australia, New Zealand, North America, and Madagascar. (635) Homo and their closely related extinct relatives coexisted on Earth in very small numbers perfectly for some 8,000,000 or more years, but over the last 10,000 years, Homo sapiens have gradually lost a vital natural connection and respect for Earth, but more especially towards the florae and faunae which also inhabit the planet. This sudden and devastating change began around the time when mass agriculture was started resulting in the development of civilizations, and eventually led to, among other things, religions, governments, money, corporations, and a plethora of social issues.

When mass agriculture was started around 10,000 years ago, it resulted in an abundant surplus of food, this quickly led to the establishment of villages, towns, city-states, and ultimately countries. This power over the masses with food and eventually other necessities in life, led to social hierarchies based on wealth which have persisted and had a negative impact not only on society, but also on the Earth as well. With agriculture, the world began to organize and thrive in many aspects, yet it was also the start of many negative social traits like the self¬ seclusion mentality, xenophobia, and nationalism. Eventually over time, social immoralities evolved not only within some societies themselves, but also towards other outside different societies as well, many of which still plague some present-day societies, (e.g. war, discrimination, racism, murder, rape, social classes, greed, slavery, assimilation of indigenous Homo sapiens, etc.)

Around 300 years ago, when commercial agriculture overtook subsistence fanning with monoculture, this was quite possibly one of the most defining moments which helped in creating a very dilapidated future for the life sustaining food sources Homo sapiens consume. That is to say, it propelled Homo sapiens greed and tyranny to an entirely new realm, in the fact that food is a necessity and once a species is dependent on a source of readily available food it becomes far less independent. One can plainly see an example of this in domesticated animals and more especially in the dog. This commercialization of agriculture also changed the type and quality of the food being consumed which resulted in a range of health issues and chronic diseases of affluence which most western societies are currently experiencing, some at epidemic proportions, (e.g. obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, strokes, various cancers, etc.)

Over the last 300 years more and more Homo sapiens have moved to civilization where all the necessities of life are readily available, in 2017 an estimated 50% of the 7,300,000,000 Homo sapiens living on Earth dwell in an urban area. (106) As a result, there has been less individual dependency on nature for sustenance, which has also led to less interaction with nature, (e.g. gathering food, firewood, water, etc.) Not having to rely on nature for daily sustenance and thus not interacting with nature on a daily basis also helped to make many Homo sapiens less respectful towards Earth, as it seems meaningless to be a good steward of Earth or to even care about how civilization has depredated the Earth and continues to ever more increasingly. What took Earth 4,500,000,000 years to evolve into, Homo sapiens depredations over a very short period have either altered or completely destroyed forever.

Most modern-day agriculture is unsustainable because of the negative and unnatural methods being used. (e.g. genetic modification, monoculture, synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, etc.) Some companies even go so far as to transport bees thousands of miles to pollinate their agricultural crops. Others attempt to change the landscape or practice agriculture under near impossible environmental conditions wasting precious resources. Ward Chesworth wrote,

“In addition, it must be recognized that agriculture as practiced from the start, has never been sustainable. It has always resulted in a drawdown of the natural capital of the Earth to the degree that human beings have become a dominating geological force on the planetary surface, and the long-tenn persistence of human civilization has become problematical. In the words of Angus Martin (1975): 'How many millennia of deforestation, dust stonns and soil erosion has it taken for us to realize that our agricultural methodology has had serious flaws in it from the start.'” (12)

If society would not have gone down the path of greed and tyranny started by the surplus of food could a more utopian world have developed? Even today there seems to be social, moral, or other issues affecting an even more abundant food surplus. The Green Revolution helped to produce higher yielding crops in less time and ultimately a food surplus, and yet there is a food distribution problem and some Homo sapiens are starving to death as a result. Whether it be self-inflicted from war, greed, environmental depredations, or civilization's expansionist tendencies, the entire history of Homo sapiens has been one in which millions continue to die from easily preventable causes, and in essence these deaths are a result of nothing more than a dysfunctional society. One might think that in modem society, with all the social, scientific, and technological advancements which have been made up until this point, that the basic necessities to live, (e.g. water, food, medicine, shelter, education, restroom access, etc.) would be available to every citizen of Earth at no monetary cost, and that they would also be of the highest quality. When a society begins to seek extreme financial profits from the necessities of life, and some Homo sapiens are living in poverty with limited or no access to these necessities, there has been a serious moral deterioration within that society.

Homo sapiens Current Food Consumption

Current food quality and availability is now mainly controlled by a few commercial food and agricultural related companies, and the mergers and takeovers have only continued. Dow Chemical and DuPont merged in 20 1 7, and Bayer’s proposed takeover of Monsanto in 2016 which is expected to be finalized in 2018, are the most recent monopolies to emerge. Chinese investors have also spent $91,000,000,000 over the last 10 years purchasing nearly 300 foreign companies involved in food, agriculture, or chemicals. (429) These commercial food and agricultural related companies heavily influence agricultural, food, health, and other related government policies. And now with food libel laws having recently been passed in 13 U.S. states any person or group that makes disparaging comments about food products could potentially be sued by the food manufacturer or processor simple for being a critic.

The March 2016 National Geographic Magazine, noted that out of the 30,000 known edible plants on Earth, only 7,000 are cultivated or collected for food, and only 30 of these are staple crops which feed most Homo sapiens.

In the United States, the U.S. farm bill and other government legislation has allowed for the subsidization of com, soy, wheat, and rice making these four main sources of processed unhealthy foods cheap, while healthy fruits and vegetables have little to no subsidization at all. These government subsidies are used to create environmentally destructive, inexpensive, unhealthy foods loaded in fat, salt, and sugar. Can't the commercial food and agricultural industries in an eco-friendly manner produce inexpensive, plentiful, healthy, all-natural organic fruits and vegetables using these same subsidies, and if so, why aren't they? History has proven that food can be healthy and that it, along with all other living necessities can be created from natural biodegradable sources, which can be grown in abundance very inexpensively and in an eco-friendly manner. So why isn't it still being done today as was done for thousands of years before?

Most of the food available today is highly -refined, has additives, is genetically modified, and from an extremely unhealthy food source containing little natural nutritional value. Many of the foods available to consumers have traveled hundreds even thousands of miles across the globe from the source requiring chemical additives or other unnatural processes to maintain it edibility. The food today that has been highly-refined is loaded with additional artificial ingredients, flavor enhancers, preservatives, and is fortified or enriched with added nutrients. Sodium is added excessively to most all foods in the form of iodized salt, sea salt, or other artificially created sodium-based ingredients like sodium bicarbonate, sodium aluminum phosphate, sodium stearoyl lactylate, etc. Homo sapiens ingest vast quantities of iodized salt which has been enriched with inorganic compounds like potassium iodate, potassium iodide, sodium iodate, or sodium iodide. Can consumers not get enough from consuming beans, strawberries, cranberries, potatoes, or other fruits and vegetables which are naturally rich in iodine? As the food

is processed a host of other mostly artificial ingredients are added to enhance flavor, aesthetic appeal, and help with preservation. As a result of all the processing, nutritional value is lost and the foods are then fortified or enriched with things like whey, gluten, niacin, iron, thiamin, vitamin C, etc. to add back the lost nutrition. Sugar substitutes like aspartame and other artificial sweeteners are also added to many food items in an attempt to market them as healthier. High fructose com syrup is added to many foods as a sugar substitute and vast quantities are consumed in the form of soda and other so called 'junk foods'. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration monitors the levels of about 800 contaminants and nutrients contained in consumer foods. Foods have nutrition fact labels and the ingredients listed, so why then isn't every contaminant also listed with another label entitled 'accumulated hidden toxins ’? If every contaminant and the possible side-effects were also listed would most consumers just ignore the warning as so many do with alcohol and tobacco? Would Homo sapiens have less contaminated food and be healthier if they became involved directly in their food production by having a small garden, versus depending entirely on the food system which corporations have set up based mainly around profits and not nutrition?

Often, food is erroneously marketed with misleading words like nutritional, healthy, fat -free, sugar-free, ecological, eco-friendly, or natural, when in fact it is some of the most disgusting, unhealthy, and unnatural food available. Some companies even display misleading images showing something that looks healthy, yet the final product is nothing like the image used to advertise the product. Why is it legal for food companies and restaurants to advertise picture -perfect food on a food product label, product packaging, menu, or in commercial advertisements, when in fact the final product being consumed is nowhere near the one being advertised, and is far different in reality, is this not false advertising? Why do consumers continue to buy into this picture -perfect food lie?

In most grocery stores, foods that are preservative free, additive free, low-sodium, non-GMO, vegan friendly, and organic are becoming more mainstream, but a wide selection is very difficult to find, and one must often resort to a specialty store like Whole Foods, Trader Joe's, another local vegan grocery store, cultural or regional markets or stores, or a farmers’ market. Many times, it also costs far more than unhealthy food which is created to sell more and marketed to sell to all, thus making it impossible for some consumers to afford healthy vegan food. Vegan and eco-friendly products cost far less to manufacture, but as demand for vegan and eco-friendly products has increased often with little competition, some vegan food companies are engaged in price gouging.

If companies did less price gouging on vegan and eco-friendly products would there be far more consumers using them? If the pricing issue is partially due to manufacturing costs being so high, would this decrease if vegan and other eco-friendly products became mainstream? Why would a consumer, especially if they are on a very fixed income with such a limited budget, choose a vegan or other eco-friendly product if it costs twice as much?

One could hypothesize that food sources of the not too distant past tasted purer and natural and were perhaps even more nutritional than today's food. Could this be in part to the food sources having been more organic, unmodified, unrefined, Earth not having been as polluted terrestrially or atmospherically, and the soils having not been so overtaxed? Or could the flavor have been literally bred out of food from modifying it too much? A 2017 study on improved tomato flavor found that modem commercial tomato varieties contained significantly lower amounts of many important flavor chemicals than older tomato varieties. (503) The following is a general list of food additives, most of them are not naturally present in any food source and are synthesized in a laboratory setting. How can consumers accept and consume foods that have been modified with so many unnatural and unhealthy additives? Why are all of these additives put in foods when so many natural and unmodified food sources already exist?

Some of the Additives Used in Food

1,4-heptono lactone - food acid

Lecithins - antioxidant. Emulsifier

2-hydroxybiphenyl - preservative

Lecithin citrate - preservative

Acesulfame potassium - artificial sweetener

Leucine - flavor enhancer

Acetic acid - acidity regulator

Lipases - flavor enhancer

Acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids - emulsifier

Lithol Rubine BK - color

Acetylated distarch adipate - thickener

Litholrubine - color

Acetylated distarch phosphate - thickener

L(+)-Tartaric acid - food acid

Acetylated oxidised starch - thickener

Lutein - color

Acetylated starch - thickener

Lycopene - color

Acid treated starch - thickener

Lysozyme - preservative

Agar - thickener, stabilizer, gelling agent

Magnesium carbonate - anti-caking agent, mineral salt

Alginic acid - thickener, stabilizer, gelling agent, emulsifier

Magnesium chloride - mineral salt

Alitame - artificial sweetener

Magnesium citrate - acidity regulator

Alkaline treated starch - thickener

Magnesium diglutamate - flavor enhancer

Allura red AC - color (FDA: FD&C Red #40)

Magnesium hydroxide - mineral salt

Aluminium - color (silver)

Magnesium lactate - food acid

Aluminium ammonium sulfate - mineral salt

Magnesium oxide - anti-caking agent

Aluminium potassium sulfate - mineral salt

Magnesium phosphates - mineral salt, anti -caking agent

Aluminium silicate - anti-caking agent

Magnesium salts of fatty acids - emulsifier, stabiliser,

Aluminium sodium sulfate - mineral salt

anti-caking agent

Aluminium sulfate - mineral salt

Magnesium silicate - anti-caking agent

Amaranth - color (red) (FDA: [DELISTED] Red #2) Note that amaranth

Magnesium stearate - emulsifier, stabiliser

dye is unrelated to the amaranth plant

Magnesium sulfate - mineral salt, acidity regulator,

Ammonium acetate - preservative, acidity regulator

firming agent

Ammonium adipates - acidity regulator

Malic acid - acidity regulator

Ammonium alginate - thicken, stabilizer, gelling agent, emulsifier

Maltitol - humectant, stabiliser

Ammonium bicarbonate - mineral salt

Maltodextrin - carbohydrate sweetener

Ammonium carbonate - mineral salt

Maltol - flavor enhancer

Ammonium chloride - mineral salt

Mannitol - humectant, anti-caking agent, sweetener

Ammonium ferric citrate - food acid

Metatartaric acid - food acid, emulsifier

Ammonium fumarate - food acid

Methyl butyrate - used as food flavoring

Ammonium hydroxide - mineral salt

Methyl ethyl cellulose - thickener, emulsifier

Ammonium lactate - food acid

Methylcellulose - thickener, emulsifier

Ammonium malate - food acid

Methylparaben (methyl para-hydroxybenzoate) -

Ammonium phosphates - mineral salt

preservative

Ammonium phosphatides - emulsifier

Microcrystalline cellulose - anti-caking agent

Ammonium polyphosphates - anti -caking agent

Mixed acetic and tartaric acid esters of mono- and

Ammonium sulfate - mineral salt, improving agent

diglycerides of fatty acids - emulsifier

Anthocyanins - color

Modified starch - also called starch derivatives, are

Argon - propellant

prepared by physically, enzymatically, or chemically

Ascorbyl palmitate - antioxidant (fat soluble)

treating native starch to change its properties

Ascorbyl stearate - antioxidant (fat soluble)

Mono- and diglycerides of Fatty acids - emulsifier

Aspartame - artificial sweetener

Monoammonium glutamate - flavor enhancer

Azodicarbonamide - flour bleaching agent. Also used in the production of

Monopotassium glutamate - flavor enhancer

foamed plastics and the manufacture of gaskets. Banned as a food additive

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) - flavor enhancer

in Australia and Europe.

Monostarch phosphate - thickener

Azorubine - color (red) (FDA: Ext D&C Red #10)

Montanic acid esters - humectant

Baking powder - leavening agent; includes acid and base

Natamycin - preservative

Baking soda - food base

Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone - artificial sweetener

Bentonite - anti-caking agent

Nisin - preservative

Benzoic acid - preservative

Nitrates - The use of nitrates in food preservation is

Benzoyl peroxide - flour treatment agent

controversial. This is due to the potential for the

Bergamot - in Earl Grey tea

formation of nitrosamines when nitrates are present in

Beta-apo-8'-carotenal (C 30) - color

high concentrations and the product is cooked at high

Beta-apo-8'-carotenic acid ethyl ester - color

temperatures. The effect is seen for red or processed

Betanin - color (red)

meat, but not for white meat or fish. The production of

Biphenyl - preservative

carcinogenic nitrosamines can be potently inhibited by

Bixin - color

the use of the antioxidants Vitamin C and the alpha-

Black 7984 - color (brown and black)

tocopherol form of Vitamin E during curing.

Black PN - color (brown and black)

Nitrogen - propellant

Bleached starch - thickener

Nitrous oxide - propellant

Bone phosphate - anti-caking agent

Norbixin - color

Borax - preservative

Octyl gallate - antioxidant

Boric acid - preservative

Orange GGN - color (orange)

Brilliant Black BN- color (brown and black)

Orcein - color (red)

Brilliant blue FCF - color (FDA: FD&C Blue #1)

Orchil - color (red)

Brilliant Scarlet 4R - color (FDA: Ext D&C Red #8)

Orthophenyl phenol - preservative

Brown FK - color (brown and black)

Patent blue V - color (blue)

Butane - propellant

Phosphated distarch phosphate - thickener

Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) - antioxidant (fat soluble)

Phosphoric acid - food acid

Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) - antioxidant (fat soluble)

Phytic acid - preservative

Calcium 5'-ribonucleotides - flavor enhancer

Pigment Rubine - color

Calcium acetate - preservative, acidity regulator

Poly vinyl pyrrolidone - used as a stabilizer

Calcium alginate - thickener, stabilizer, gelling agent, emulsifier

Polydextrose - humectant

Calcium ascorbate - antioxidant (water-soluble)

Polyethylene glycol 8000 - antifoaming agent

Calcium aluminosilicate (calcium aluminium silicate) - anti-caking agent

Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids - emulsifier

Calcium ascorbate (Vitamin C)

Polyglycerol polyricinoleate - emulsifier

Calcium benzoate - preservative

Polymethylsiloxane - antifoaming agent

Calcium bisulfite - preservative, antioxidant

Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate - emulsifier

Calcium carbonates - color (white), anticaking agent, stabiliser

Polyoxyethylene (8) stearate - emulsifier, stabilizer

Calcium chloride - mineral salt

Polyphosphates - mineral salt, emulsifier

Calcium citrates - food acid, finning agent

Polysorbate 20 - emulsifier

Calcium diglutamate - flavor enhancer

Polysorbate 40 - emulsifier

Calcium disodium EDTA - preservative

Polysorbate 60 - emulsifier

Calcium ferrocyanide - anti-caking agent

Polysorbate 65 - emulsifier

Calcium formate - preservative

Polysorbate 80 - emulsifier

Calcium fumarate - food acid

Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone - color stabiliser

Calcium gluconate - acidity regulator

Ponceau 4R - color (FDA: Ext D&C Red #8)

Calcium guanylate - flavor enhancer

Ponceau 6R - color

Calcium hydrogen sulfite - preservative, antioxidant

Ponceau SX - color

Calcium hydroxide - mineral salt

Potassium acetates - preservative, acidity regulator

Calcium inosinate - flavor enhancer

Potassium adipate - food acid

Calcium lactate - food acid

Potassium alginate - thickener, stabilizer, gelling agent,

Calcium lactobionate - stabilizer

emulsifier

Calcium malates - food acid

Potassium aluminium silicate - anti -caking agent

Calcium oxide - mineral salt

Potassium ascorbate - antioxidant (water-soluble)

Calcium peroxide - is used as flour bleaching agent and improving agent

Potassium benzoate - preservative

Calcium phosphates - mineral salt, anti-caking agent, firming agent

Potassium bicarbonate - mineral salt

Calcium polyphosphates - anti -caking agent

Potassium bisulfite - preservative, antioxidant

Calcium propionate - preservative

Potassium bromate - flour treatment agent

Calcium salts of fatty acids - emulsifier, stabiliser, anti-caking agent

Potassium carbonate - mineral salt

Calcium silicate - anti-caking agent

Potassium chloride - mineral salt

Calcium sorbate - preservative

Potassium citrates - food acid

Calcium stearoyl lactylate - emulsifier

Potassium ferrocyanide - anti-caking agent

Calcium sulfate - flour treatment agent, mineral salt, sequestrant.

Potassium fumarate - food acid

improving agent, firming agent

Potassium gluconate - stabiliser

Calcium sulfite - preservative, antioxidant

Potassium hydrogen sulfite - preservative, antioxidant

Calcium tartrate - food acid, emulsifier

Potassium hydroxide - mineral salt

Canthaxanthin - color

Potassium lactate - food acid

Capsanthin - color

Potassium malate - food acid

Capsorubin - color

Potassium metabisulfite - preservative, antioxidant

Caramel I (plain) - color (brown and black)

Potassium nitrate - preservative, color fixative

Caramel II (Caustic Sulfite process) - color (brown and black)

Potassium nitrite - preservative, color fixative

Caramel III (Ammonia process) - color (brown and black)

Potassium phosphates - mineral salt

Caramel IV (Ammonia sulfite process) - color (brown and black)

Potassium propionate - preservative

Carbamide - flour treatment agent

Potassium salts of fatty acids - emulsifier, stabiliser, anti-

Carbon black - color (brown and black)

caking agent

Carbon dioxide - acidity regulator, propellant

Potassium sodium tartrate - food acid

carmines - color (red)

Potassium sorbate - preservative

Carmoisine - color (red) (FDA: Ext D&C Red #10)

Potassium sulfate - mineral salt, seasoning

Carotenes - color

Potassium sulfite - preservative, antioxidant

Alpha-carotene - color

Potassium tartrates - food