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Academy of Natural Sciences, Cor. 19th Sf Race Sts.








Shell spiral, elongated, bulimiform, turbinifo*m, trochiform, depressed, lenticular, or planorbiform, usually thicker than in the Zonitidae, and also less transparent than in that family ; the aperture either edentulous or armed with teeth, the lip usually reflected.

Animal capable of complete retraction within the shell, the tail without mucous gland or projection ; mouth always pro- vided with a jaw, which is striate, ribbed, sulcate or plicate, sometimes composed of several imbricating pieces; radula com- posed of many transverse horizontal series of teeth, the centrals tricuspidate, about the size of the laterals, laterals bicuspid, or tricuspid with the interior cusp obsolete, marginals usually wider than high, shortVwHh two or three small cusps (Struct, and Syst. Conch., i, t. 13, f. 59).

As to the shell of the heliciform groups it is usually readily distinguished from Zonitidse by the reflected lip of the aperture, which is a character distinguishing most of the larger and most important sections or groups, but this difference disappears in the Patulae, for example, in which the lip is simple and the shell thinner; however, the Patulse are commonly darker in color, often with characteristic chestnut markings, and more rugosely sculptured surface than most Zonitidae.

In the soft parts the most obvious distinction is the want of a caudal mucous pore in the Helices, and their possessing a sculptured jaw. Typically, there is a distinction in the denti- tion, although in some species the lateral teeth of Helices take on a pseud ozonitoid appearance ; even in such cases the extreme marginals in Helix remajn short and very obtuse.

The family thus outlined comprises several thousand species, most of the land-snails, in fact ; including not only the numerous groups of Helix proper, but those of Bulimus, Partula, etc., as well. As the consideration of the species will occupy the pages



of some volumes of this work— several of them for Helix alone the usual synopsis of genera is omitted (it may be found in Structural and Systematic Conch ology, iii, 28-58), and I proceed at once to the consideration of the

Genus HELIX, Linnaeus.

Shell of variable form, orbicular, convex, planorboid, trochi- form, subturricqlated or short bulimiform (monstrosities sinis- tral, or with whorls more or less uncoiled), smooth, rugose, striate, ribbed, tuberculate, sometimes pilose, often variegated in color ; the aperture oblique, oval or semilunar, with or without teeth on the interior of the lip, or parietal wall or colu- mella; the lip usually reflected, sometimes internally thickened, sometimes simple and sharp ; umbilicus varying from covered to widely open.

No more precise diagnosis can be given of a genus in which the conchological features vary so much as they do in Helix. Albers, Beck, Swainson, Ferussac, the brothers Adams, PfeifFer, and many others, have proposed a great number of groups rank- ing from sections merely, to genera, but which agree in posv sessing but little individuality in a systematic, although highly important in a developmental aspect. In fact, the species in these groups very generally indicate more strongly here than in any other branch of Conchology, both by their general facies and by the territory peopled by them, their common ancestry. This is possibly the effect of a more recent appearance and a more rapid development than in the marine groups of moliusks, the extinct forms extending no further back than the cretaceous period in Europe and the somewhat later Laramie in the United States, and altogether very few in number, whilst the number of species now living is not far from four thousand ; indeed, it is not improbable that much of the differentiation has taken place within the historic period.

The number of species of Helix, although considerably reduced in late years by the elimination of the genera comprised in the family Zonitidse, still remains so large that further disintegra- tion would be very desirable, were it practicable ; unfortunately, no divisions have been proposed having the distinctive charac- ters usually assigned to genera and subgenera. As a mere"


convenience, the names of these ancestral-geographical groups might be used in a generic sense, if only we could cease to apply the name Helix to the whole of them.

Considering the above circumstances, I propose to use the generic and subgeneric divisions which have been formed under Helix as Sections only, and those sections which have certain common relationships as composing Groups, the latter as well as the former, although in a larger sense, indicating common ancestry and distribution. In a general way these groups will advance from those in which the characters most resemble the Zonitidae towards what has been usually accepted as the typical or ideal Helix, and thence towards the next-coming genus Bulimus. As I have stated that the characters distinguishing these sections and groups have but little systematic value, it will be readily understood that they are not readily expressible ; hence no useful S3~nopsis or comparative table of them is possible, and I shall simply take them up in succession in proceeding immediately with the descriptions of the species.

Group 1. SAGDA, Beck, 183?.

Shell subperforate, or im perforate, globosely conoidal or de- pressed, diaphanous; whorls narrow, aperture with interior revolving lamellae, peristome simple, sharp. Jaw oxygnathus.

Jamaica. Section SAGDA (sensu stricto).

Shell subimperforate, globosely conoidal ; spire more or less elevated, with obtuse apex ; eight or nine narrow whorls, the last flattened at the base, excavated around the umbilical region ; with internal revolving lamellae ; columella short, oblique, dilated at the base ; aperture obliquely semilunar, peristome simple. Epistyla, Swainson, 1840, is a synonym.

Section HYALOSAGDA, Albers, 1860.

Shell scarcely perforated, depressed, hyaline, thin; whorls 5-7, narrow, the last excavated at the base ; aperture obliquely lunar (with or without a basal lamella); peristome acute, colu- mellar margin scarcely dilated, slightly reflexed, more depressed, but with the same narrow whorls as in the typical section ; most of the species have no internal lamella.


(Section SAGDA, Beck, 1837). H. ALLTGANS, C.,B. Adams. PI. 1, figs. 1-3.

Imperforate, globosely conoidal, white, under a brownish- yellow epidermis, incremental striae regular, stronger on the spire than on the body-whorl ; whorls 8, narrow, aperture with a

deep-seated strong basal lamella. Diam. 1-5J5 inches.


The synonyms are H. epistylium, Pfr. (not M tiller), H. alveo- lata, Beck ?

H. EPISTYLIOIDES, Per. PI. 1, fig. 4.

Solid, imperforate, obliquely costate, white, under a corneous yellow epidermis ; whorls 9, the last scarcely wider than the others, obsoletely angulated, aperture with an evanescent deep- seated revolving basal lamella. Diam. 1 inch.


H. al>veolata,j\m., Beck, is referred here by Pfeiffer.

H. CONNECTENS, C. B. Adams. PI. 1, fig. 5.

Imperforate, hemispherical, white under a corneous epidermis, somewhat rugosely sculptured by incremental striae ; whorls 9, very narrow, a little convex, the last slightly convex below, concave in the umbilical region ; aperture rather narrow, trans- verse, the basal lamella strong, acute, deep-seated. Diam. 1 inch.

Jamaica. H. JAYANA, C. B. Adams. PI. 1, figs. 6, T.

Imperforate, conoidal, smoothish, lightly striulate, white under a corneous epidermis, spire conoidal, obtuse ; whorls 9j, flattened, the last subangulated, base deeply excavated ; coluinella short, somewhat oblique, basal lamella deep-seated. Diam. 1 inch.


This is H. Cookiana of Pfr. (not Gmel.),in part, H. alligans, Reeve (fig. 7).

H. AUSTRALIS, Chemn. PI. 1, fig. 8.

Imperforate, solid, obliquely striate above, light yellowish corneous, spire somewhat acute, suture impressed, margined ; whorls 8, a little convex, slowly increasing, periphery very obsoletely angulated, base more lightly striated, globose, impressed in the middle, aperture almost vertical, with an


interrupted basal lamella, columella slanting, callously thick- ened. Diam. 22 mill.


This is H. Foremaniana, Pfr. (not Adams) ; H. Cookiana, Gmel. ; H. conica, Swains., and H. epistylium, Dillw.

H. ALVEARE, Pfr. PI. 1, fig. 9.

Imperforate, solid, obliquely striate, white under the hirsute fulvous epidermis ; whorls 10, narrow, the last obsoletely angulate near the base ; aperture with a deep-seated basal lamella, the columella with a subspiral lamella, scarcely visible without. Diam. 1 inch.

Jamaica. H. FOREMANIANA, C. B. Adams. PI. 1, fig. 10.

Imperforate, somewhat solid, smoothly striate, alabastrine; whorls 7, a little convex, the last globose, base not impressed ; a strong nodiform tooth on the columella, and an acute elevated lamella (with rarely a second smaller one) on the base of the aperture. Diam. 18-5 mill.


H. TRIPTYCHA, Shllttl. PI. 1, fig. 11.

Imperforate, globulose, thin, scarcely striulate, shining, diaphanous, alabastrine ; whorls 6, slowly increasing, suture submargined, last whorl inflated, periphery subangulated, base scarcely impressed, colnmella twisted, truncate at base, callously dentate, basal margin with an acute entering lamella, and a smaller one near the columella. Diam. 14 mill.

Jamaica. H. SPICULOSA, Shnttlew. PI. 1, fig. 12.

Imperforate, campanulately semiglobose, solid, Hghly striate, whitish under a deciduous yellowish epidermis ; whorls 8, a little convex, apex subacute, last whorl obsoletely angulated, base excavated in the middle, columella callousty dentate, aperture with a revolving basal lamella, scarcely reaching the margin. Diam. 14 mill.


H. TORREFACTA, C. B. Ad. PI. 1, fig. 13.

Imperforate, somewhat solid ; whorls 9, a little convex, the earlier ones elegantly striate, the later ones smoothish, the last with subangulate periphery, and scarcely impressed base ;


columella somewhat straightly descending, twisted, thickened, aperture wide, with a strong basal lamella. Diam. 16 mill.

Jamaica. H. PILA, C. B. Adams. PL 1, fig. 14.

Imperforate, thin, smooth (very minutely lightly decussated), diaphanous, whitish, suture deep ; whorls 6^, convex, the last globose, base not impressed ; columella short, subvertical, den- tately dilated ; aperture widely lunar, with an acute elevated lamella below the middle of the base. Diam. 12 mill.


H. LAMELLIFERA, C. B. Ad. PL 1, fig. 15.

Imperforate, striated, the yellowish corneous epidermis sub- pustulose ; whorls 5J-6, a little convex, moderately increasing, the last more convex, with scarcely impressed base ; columella oblique, callously thickened, aperture obliquely lunar, base with a median lamella, evanescent in front. Diam. 10 mill.

Jamaica. H. BLANDTI, Weinland. PL 1, figs. 16, IT.

Very narrowly umbilicated, rather thin, scarcely striulate, whitish ; whorls 6, narrow, very slowly increasing, the last a little compressed on the sides, base convex, a little excavated in the middle ; aperture vertical, widely lunar, with an interrupted or continuous spiral basal lamina, and nodular columella.

Diam. 4 mill. Port au Prince, Haiti.

Section HYALOSAGDA, Albers, 1860.

H. OSCULANS, C. B. Ad. PL 1, figs. 18, 19.

Imperforate, depressed, thin, striulate, shining, pellucid, hyaline-white ; spire very short, convex, suture smooth, sub- margined ; whorls 6-J, scarcely convex, base subexcavated ; aperture obliquely lunar, columellar margin subcallous, nearly horizontal, basal lamella strong, conspicuous. Diam. 13 mill.

Jamaica. Yar. DELAMINATA, Adams MS. The lamella absent.

H. HALDEMANIANA, C. B. Adams. PL 1, figs. 20-22.

Imperforate, striulate, thin, shining, pale greenish or corneous, hyaline, spire very obtuse, suture margined; whorls T, scarcely convex, base deeply excavated in the middle. Diam. 13 mill.

Jamaica. H. arboreoides, Adams, is a synonym.


H. SIMILIS, C. B. Adams. PI. 1, figs. 23, 24.

Perforate, depressed, rather thin, somewhat distantly striulate, shining, diaphanous, whitish, spire scarcely convex, the apex submucronate ; whorls 6, narrow, slightly convex, the last later- ally subcompressed, base a little excavated. Diam. 13 mill.

Jamaica. H. HOLLANDI, C. B. Adams. PL 1, figs. 25, 26.

Differs from the preceding species in the whorls being more

depressed, base plane, aperture wider. Diam. 11 mill.


H. AMBIGUA, C. B. Adams. PI. 1, figs. 27, 28.

Differs from H. similis in having a more elevated spire, colu- mella less oblique, anterior part of the lip directly transverse, umbilicus smaller. Suture deeper than in H. similis or H. Halde- maniana, between which this shell is in most characters inter- mediate. Diam. 1T5 mill.


H. BREVIS, C. B. Adams. PL 1, fig. 29.

Narrowly umbilicated, depressed, subdiscoidal, thin, smooth, shining, whitish ; spire scarcely convex ; whorls 4J; flattened, slowly increasing, the last depressed, base subplanulate.

Diam. 3*75 mill.

Jamaica, H. CIRCUMFIRMATA, Eedfield. PL 1, fig. 30.

Umbilicated, conoidally depressed, thin, lightly obliquely striated ; fulvous corneous, with irregular light chestnut striga- tions ; suture impressed ; whorls 7 J, slowly increasing, the last with angulated periphery and more convex base ; aperture with an acute white spiral lamina below the periphery, visible through the shell, columella with a spiral callus. Diam. 10'5 mill.

Bermuda. H. DISCREPANS, Pfr.

Differs from the preceding species in being more solid, the spire less elevated, the peripheral carina more acute, a basal interior carina reaching the margin of the aperture, and the columella subdentate within near its insertion. Diam. 10-25 mill.

Bermuda. Un figured.


Group II. LEUCOCHROA, Beck, 1837.

Shell imperforate to moderately umbilicated, globose or de- pressly globose, thick, white, or dull-colored, cretaceous ; whorls about five, usually with more or less angulated periphery, the last slightly descending in front; peristome simple, thickened, columella callously dilated, often covering the umbilicus. Jaw oxygnathous. Circum-Mediterranean Region. H. CANDIDISSIMA, Drap.

The synonyms are Calcarina, Moquin-Tandon, 1845, and Iberus (in part), H. and A. Adams, 1855.

Section LEUCOCHROA (sensu stricto).

Aperture broadly lunar, rounded, often with a small outer angle, corresponding with the peripheral carina.

Section MIMA, Westerlnnd, 1866.

Aperture very angular, much thickened within, especially above, where it develops two strong tubercles or tooth-like pro- jections subconfluent into one, narrowing the mouth.

On account of the ribless jaw of H. candidissima, and for other peculiarities, Dr. von Martens classed this group with the Zonitidse. The investigations of Binney have shown that H. Boissieri, also a Leucochroa, has a ribbed jaw and the dentition of Helix. The heavjr shells, and absence of a mucous pore are characters which serve to confirm the classification here adopted.

(Section LEUCOCHROA, sensu stricto.) H. CANDIDISSIMA, Drap. PI. 2, figs. 31-35.

Subimperforate, globose, solid, cretaceous ; whorls 5, rather flattened, the upper ones carinate above the suture, carina after- wards becoming evanescent, the last deflected in front ; peris- tome subpatulous, thickened within. Diam. 16-25 mill.

Southern France, Italy, Algiers. Var. RIMOSA, Jan. Fig. 34.

Subcarinate, umbilicus rimose. Diam. 20 mill. H. depressa, Miihlf., is a synonym.

Yar. HIEROCHUNTINA, Boissieri. Fig. 35.


\s^ Q


H. B^TICA, Rossmassler. PI. 2, figs. 36, 37.

Globose, solid, whitish ash-color; whorls 5^, very slowly in- creasing, the upper ones carious-rugulose, the penultimate about as broad as the last, the last more or less angulated on the periphery, rounded in front; aperture widely lunar, angulated exteriorly, peristome internally sublabiate. Diam. 25 mill.

Spain, Morocco, Algiers. Yar. ALEXANDRINA, Fagot.

Smaller, conical bullet-shaped, penultimate whorl viewed from above appearing broader than the last one. Diam. 14-15 mill.

Near Alexandria, Egypt. H. THAYACA, Bourg. PI. 2, fig. 38.

Imperforate, opaque, solid, finely striated, brownish oliva- ceous ; whorls 6, periphery obtusely angulated. Diam. 27 mill.

Constantine, Algiers. H. TITANODOLEMA, Pechaud.

An unfigured species from the same locality as the above, but white, the wftorls more drawn out, the base more swollen, the last whorl suddenly deflected anteriorly.

H. OTTHTANA, Forbes. PI. 2, figs. 39-44.

Umbilicated, carinate, striate, white, suture subcrenulated ; whorls 5, planulate, the last scarcely deflected in front.

Diam. 23 mill.

A Igiers. Yar. JEANNOTIANA, Terver. Figs. 41, 42.

More depressed and smaller, umbilicus open, periphery sharply carinated.

H. piestius. Bourg., is a synonym.

Yar. CHIONODISCUS, Pfr. Figs. 43, 44.

Umbilicus nearly covered, con vexly depressed above, periphery with a strong wavy carina, becoming obsolete towards the aper- ture ; whorls 5, the last abruptly deflected in front.

Diam. 26 mill.

Bourguignat has distinguished two forms of this Yar. under the names of oxygira and depressa.


Larger, much more compressed and sharply keeled, the umbil- icus open and rather broad, lip drawn down or overhanging above.

12 BELT*.

H. ARGIA, Bourg. PL 2, figs. 45, 46.

Umbilicus nearly covered, shell solid, cretaceous, shining, irregularly striulate and obsoletely malleated ; whorls 6, slowly increasing, sharply keeled, the keel becoming less strong or

finally obsolete on the last whorl. Diam. 23 mill.

Bona, Algiers.

Probably only another variety of the last species.

H. FJMBRTATA, Bourg. PI. 2, figs. 4f, 48.

Covered perforate, subglobose, solid, cretaceous, subplanulate above ; whorls 5, a little flattened, the first smooth, the following subcarious, narrowly fimbriately carinated, the last deflected in front, rounded, periphery obsolete!}7 subangulated.

Diam. 16 mill.

Palestine, Mesopotamia. Yar. ILLICITA, Mousson.

Whorls slightly convex, suture incised, not carinately margined above, sculpture indistinct, carina evanescent anteriorly, margin of insertion callous, subthickened.

Yar. MYOPA, Westerl.

Shell smaller, globosely contracted; suture well impressed, tuberculately erose ; aperture rounded, peristome thicker. Diam. 12 mill.

Yar. VARICOSULA, Westerl.

Entire upper surface regularly finely granulated, periphery with a keel and the trace of another above it.

H. PROPHETARUM, Bourg. PI. 2, figs. 49, 50.

Covered perforate, depressed, solid, striulate, cretaceous, white, suture impressed ; whorls 4^, flattened or slightly convex, the last very obsoletely angulated, rounded in front, shortly and suddenly deflected. Diam. 16 mill.


Yar. /? is more depressed, the last whorl obscurely bicarinate, flattened below; Yar. y is less depressed, last whorl subrotund, more convex below, peripheral extremities joined by a stronger callus.


H. CARIOSULA, Mich. PL 2, figs. 51, 52.

Subimperforate, carinate, globosely convex above, carious, somewhat flattened below, soiled white, with a tubercularly eroded filiform sutnral carina ; whorls 5, somewhat flattened; upper margin of aperture subdeflected. Diam. 18 mill.

Algiers. H. MAYRANI, Gassies. PI. 2, figs. 53-55.

Imperforate, carinate, gr arm lately crispate under the rusty epidermis, flatter below, flesh white, with a filiform peripheral carina, evanescent in front ; whorls 5-6, convex, the last with radiating striae above, suture profound. Diam. 19-20 mill.

Algiers. Var. SUBCARIOSULA, Bourg. Fig. 55.

Granulations stronger, base less swollen, keel sharper. H. Kobeltiana, Debeaux, is a synonym.

Yar. DEBEAUXI, Kobelt.

Globosely trochoidal, calcareous, soiled white ; whorls very distinctly crenated at the suture, tuberculosely rugose, the last whorl obsoletely angulated, smoother and shining below, base convex, excavated around the umbilical region.


Umbilicus covered or rimate, turbinately convex above, planulate below, whitish, strongly rugose above ; whorls 5^, strongly tuberculate at the suture, carinate below, the last compressedly carinate, the base subtumid, radiately plicately striate. Diam. 17-22 mill, alt. 10-12 mill.

Or an, Algiers.


H. cariosula, var. vetula, Westerl., is a synonym.

H. CARIOSA, Olivier. PL 2, figs. 56-59.

Umbilicated, carinated, convex, white, rough, crispately rugulose ; whorls 5, the last scarcely deflected in front, angu- lated around the wide, deep umbilicus. Diam. 18 mill.

Syria. Var. NAZARENSIS, Mouss.

Half bullet-shaped, swollen, the last whorl angulated only at the periphery, upper surface thickly grained.



With strong carinse at the periphery and surrounding the umbilicus.

Yar. AMPHTCYRTA, Bourg. Figs. 58, 59.

More flattened, compressed, last whorl not descending in front, aperture more angular, subtetragonal, last whorl strongly bicarinate, umbilicus widely conical.


Canary Islands Species, doubtfully referred here. H. ULTIMA, Mousson. PL 2, figs. 60-62.

Umbilicated perspectively, cretaceous, substriated, with more or less oblique granulations, white, apex grayish corneous, suture linear ; whorls 6,slightl3^ convex, the upper ones crenately carinated,the last not descending in front, more convex, obtusely carinated or angulated on the periphery, narrowly rounded at the umbilicus; peristome straight, acute. Diam. 14 mill.

Ins. Fiter te vent ura, Canary Islands.

H. PRESSA, Mousson. PL 2, figs. 63-65.

More depressed than the preceding species, the granular striae smaller, the umbilicus wider. Perhaps only a variety.

Diam. 12 mill.

Fuerteventura, Canary Islands.

H. ACCOLA, Mousson. PL 2, figs. 66, 67.

Umbilicated, cretaceous, striulate, with minute rugae or granulations, white, suture subimpressed ; whorls 5^, a little convex, the upper ones obtusely nodulously carinate, the last not descending in front, periphery obtusely angulated or carinated, somewhat flattened below, narrowly rounded at the umbilicus. Diam. 9 mill.

Fuerteventura, Canary Islands.

H. HISPANICA, Westerlund (unfigured). Spain.

Section MIMA, Westerlund, 1886. H. BOISSIERI, Charpentier. PL 2, figs. 68, 69.

Covered perforate, thick, irregularly striated, a little shining, cretaceous, white ; whorls 5, slightly convex, the last deflected


anteriorly ; aperture with thick lip, projecting internally above in two thick, subconfluent tubercles. Diam. 25 mill.

Arabia Petrasa, Judea. Bourguignat has described a var. ZONATA.

H. FILIA, Mousson. PL 2, figs. 70, 71.

Imperforate, rather solid, striulate, shining, white ; whorls 4, a little convex, the last subdepressed, rounded, constricted and deflected in front; aperture with a parietal tubercle at the junc- tion of the upper lip, lip irregular, profoundly sinuous.

Diam. 17 mill. Palestine.

Group III. PATULA, Held, 1837.

Shell umbilicated, discoidal, turbinated or trochiform, rugose or strongly striated, usually horn-colored, frequently strigated, maculated or banded with chestnut ; whorls gradually enlarging, lip of the aperture simple, sharp ; jaws smooth or slightly striated , with a more or less marked median projection. There are several hundred species; distribution universal. The synonymy includes Delomphalus, Agassiz, 1837 ; Euryompliala, Herm., 1846, and Discus (in part), Ads., 1855.

The following sections have been proposed :

Section Discus, Fitzinger, 1833.

Shell depressed, widely umbilicated, periphery rounded.

This is the typical division, of which H. ROTUNDATA, Mull., may be considered an example. The species inhabit Europe, the United States, Polynesia, etc.

Subsection PUNCTUM, Morse, 1864.

Shell minute, orbicularly depressed, umbilicus usually moder- ate or narrow, surface costate or strongly striated. Jaw com- posed of distinct quadrate overlapping plates, or imbricately folded. Type H. PYGM^EA, Drap. Europe.

I place in this group, as synonyms, Patulastra, Pfr., 1878, and Carthaea and Phryxgnathus, Hutton.

Subsection PLANOGYRA, Morse, 1864.

Shell minute, perfectly flat above, umbilicus moderate; whorls very convex, the last one sharply ribbed. H. ASTERISCUS, Morse. United States.


Subsection GONIODISCUS, Fitzinger, 1833.

Shell depressed, widely umbilicated, periphery angulated. Type H. SOLARIA, Menke. Europe.

Subsection AMPHIDOXA, Albers, 1850.

Widely umbilicated, thin, depressed, plane above, convex below, with close, rounded volutions and impressed sutures ; last whorl narrow ; aperture slightly oblique, rounded lunate ; peris- tome simple, acute, margins joined. Type II. MARMORELLA, Pfr. Ins. Juan Fernandez.

Stephanoda, Albers, 1830, may be placed here as a synonym.

Subsection MACROCYCLOIDES, Martens, 1867.

Shell depressed, shining, striate, hyaline, base slightly exca- vated, showing all the whorls, peristome acute, the margins somewhat approaching. Type H. OBSCURATA, Adams and Reeve. East Indies. Subsection TRICHODISCUS, Strebel and Pfeffer, 1819.

Shell depressed, widely umbilicated, banded, beset with fine bristle-bearing warts; peristome a little expanded. Type H. COACTILIATA, Fer. Mexico, Central America.

Subsection THYSANOPHORA, Strebel and Pfeffer.

Shell flat or subconical, widely umbilicated, brown, with longi- tudinal plaits and rows of epidermal fringes ; aperture simple. Type H. IMPURA, Pfr. Mexico.

Subsection PYRAMIDULA, Fitzinger, 1833.

Shell pyramidal, minute, costate or strongly striate, umbilicus moderate or narrow.

Microconus, Strebel, 1880, appears to be synonymous. Type H. RUPESTRIS, Drap. Europe.

Subsection ACANTHINULA, Beck, 1846.

Shell perforate, globosely turbinated, with a brownish, pli- cately ribbed, often aculeate epidermis; whorls 4-5; aperture rounded, peristome thin, somewhat expanded, its extremities approaching.

The buccal plate is transversely and longitudinally striate, its edge slightly indented, with a middle projection. Viviparous, containing embryos in various stages of development at the


same time. H. ACULEATA, Mull. Europe. The United States and West Indies also have representatives. Zoogenites, Morse, 1864, is a synonym.

Section ANGUISPIRA, Morse, 1864.

Shell large, striate or finely ribbed, depressed-turbinate, horn color, striped or banded with brown, umbilicus moderate. H. ALTERNATA, Say. United States.

Section ENDODONTA, Albers, 1850.

Usually depressed, with moderate or wide umbilicus, rounded or carinated periphery, aperture with parietal or lip lamellae, or both, surface usually costate or rugosely striate, brownish or radiatingly variegated with yellowish and chestnut. H. HUA- HEINENSIS, Pfr. Mostly Polynesian.

Pitys, H. and A. Adams, 1855, is a synonym. Mr. Garrett attempts to divide the species into two groups, Endodonta and Pitys ; there being differences in the periphery, umbilicus, number and situation of the teeth, etc. I at first endeavored to make a somewhat similar arrangement of the species, corres- ponding with those of the edentulate Patulae, but have not succeeded ; and in grouping the species I have recurred to Pfeiffer's artificial arrangement, as on the whole the most useful.

Subsection LAOMA, Gray, 1849.

Shell conical or trochiform, scarcely perforate, smooth, pellu- cid, shining ; whorls flattened, the last carinated, base plane ; aperture squarely depressed, lamellate, lip simple. H. LEIMONIAS, Gray. New Zealand.

Actinaria, Pfr., 1855, may be united with this, as a synonym.

Section LIBERA, Garrett, 1881.

Shell small, widely umbilicated, but the umbilicus (in adults) strongly constricted below, so as to form a pouch-like cavity within ; whorls 7-9, costulate or striate, periphery usually angu- lated, rarely rounded ; peristome simple ; parietal region with one or two, and the palate with two or three internal laminae, columella emarginate and furnished with a spiral fold. H. FRA- TERCULA, Pease. Polynesia.

These animals are remarkable for their habit of ovipositing 2


into the cavernous umbilicus of their shells ; this umbilicus is constricted with the formation of the last two whorls, and the eggs and young are sometimes still more effectually retained by a temporary shelly plate which partially covers the opening.

Section TROCIIOMORPHA, Albers, 1850.

Subperforated to umbilicated, trochiform, with more or less obtuse apex ; whorls somewhat flattened, the last with a carinated periphery, and planulate base ; aperture depressed, oblique, peris- tome simple.

A large group, the metropolis of which is central Polynesia, but some of the species are East Indian. Trochomorplioides and Ganesella, Nevill, are scarcely distinguishable.

Liocystis^ Morch, contains a species having a sigmoid colu- mella. I have followed Pfeiffer in including it here.

Subsection NIGRITELLA, Albers, 1860.

Includes the t}^pical forms of Trocliomorpha, as distinguished from the following subsections.

Subsection VIDENA, H. and A. Adams, 1852.

Widely umbilicated, thin, discoidal, carinated at the periphery, flat or somewhat elevated above, flatly convex below ; aperture widely subtriangular, the peristorne simple, sharp or slightly thickened. Mostly Polynesian and Australasian. H. ACUTI- MARGO, Pfr. Philippines.

Subsection THYSANOTA, Albers, 1860.

Narrowly umbilicated, trochiform, thin ; whorls, scarcely con- vex, base carinated, with rigid hairs ; aperture angularly lunar, lip simple, acute, columellar margin slightly expanded. H. GUERINI, Pfr. India.

The New Zealand group Thera, Hutton, appears to be iden- tical.

Subsection PARARHYTIDA, Ancey.

Narrowly umbilicated, conical-discoidal, obliquely plicately striate, thin, diaphanous, periphery acutely carinated. H. DIO- TYODES, Pfr. New Caledonia.


Subsection POECILOZONITES, Sandberger, 1884.

Narrowly umbilicated, conoidally lenticular, with acutely angulated periphery; aperture subtrapezoidal, lip simple, thick- ened within, columella short, vertical. H. BERMUDENSIS, Pfr. Bermuda.

Section MICROPHYSA, Albers, 1860.

Shell nmbilicated, turbinately or globosely depressed, thin, striulate, scarcely shining, usually light yellowish ; whorls 4-5, slightly convex, slowly increasing ; aperture rounded-lunate, peristome thin, the margins converging. H. BOOTHIANA, Pfr. West Indies.

Subsection PELTA, Albers, 1860.

Shell imperforate, depressed, lenticular, thin, with concentric lines, acutely carinate ; whorls 5, slightly convex, the last with convex base, impressed in the middle ; aperture subrhombic, peristome simple, acute. H. SPIRULATA, Pfr. Central America.

Section PELLA, Albers, 1860.

Shell imperforate or perforate, depressed orbicular, thin, striate, or plicate-striate ; whorls 5, slightly convex; aperture Innately rounded, peristome simple, acute; columellar lip sub- vertical, dilated above. H. BISCULPTA, Benson. South Africa. Phasis, Albers, 1850, proposed for a single Cape species, may be added.

Group III. PATULA, Held, 1837.

Section Discus, Fitzinger, 1833. H. ROTUNDATA, Miiller. PI. 3, figs. 72-76.

Pers^ectively nmbilicated, depressed, yellowish corneous, maculated with chestnut, lightly costulate-striate, spire convex; whorls (H, planulate, the last obtusely subangulate on the periphery. Diam. 8 mill.

Middle and Northern Europe. H. radiata, Da Costa, is a synonym.

Yar. TURTONI, Fleming.

Spire much depressed, upper surface plane. Yar. ALBINA, Fer. Figs. 75, 76.

Shell whitish or greenish white, without rays. An albino.


Var. PALLIDA, Baudon.

Whitish, the yellowish flammules faint.


Whorls exserted. A monstrosity.

Yar. GLOBOSA, Fried.

H. PEBSPECTIVA, Say. PI. 3, figs. 77-79.

Widely, perspectively umbilicated, very slightly convex above, excavated below, thin, reddish corneous, regularly costulate ; whorls 6^, slightly convex, slowly increasing.

Diam. 8 mill.

U. S. (Middle, Western and Southern States).

North of Maryland it does not occur east of the Appalachian chain.

It is Helix patula, Desh.

H. RUDERATA, Studer. PI. 3, figs. 80-84.

Perspectively umbilicated, depressed, yellowish corneous, finely costulate-striate, spire a little convex; whorls 4-5, the last with rounded periphery. Diam. 6-8 mill.

Northern and Middle Europe, United States, Northern Asia.

The synonyms are : H. rotundata ft Nilss ; H. umbilicus, Marklin; H.striatella, Anthony (figs. 82-84); H.perspectiua,~Fer.

Yar. ALBIDA, Westerl.

Shell greenish white. Northern Sweden, Norway.

Yar. GORTSCHANA, Mousson.

A little more depressed, thin, costulse not so close and less distinct.

Russian Transcaucasia. Yar. OPULENS, Westerl und.

Globosely convex, densely costulate, widely concavely um- bilicated; whorls convex, the last obtusely angulated, suture deep. Diam. 7, alt. 5 mill.

Behring^s Island. H. PAUPER, Gould. PI. 3, figs. 85, 86.

Discoidal, reddish brown, incremental striae costulate ; whorls 4^, a little convex, with deep suture. Diam. 7'5 mill.

Kamtschatka ; Jesso, Japan. Umbilicus narrower than in H. ruder ata ; but certainly very


closely allied to that species. The earlier described H. flocculus, Morelet, is probably the young of this species.

H. CRONKHEITEI, Newcomb. PL 3, figs. 87, 88.

Subdepressed, a little convex above, costulate striate, yellow- ish corneous ; whorls 4, suture wide and deep, almost channeled, umbilicus large, perspective. Diam. 5 mill.

Oregon, Alaska.

More elevated, striae stronger, suture deeper than in H. ruderata ; of which it is very probably a mere variety.

H. HORNII, Gabb. PI. 3, figs. 89, 90.

Openly umbilicated, depressed, brownish, minutely obliquely striate, and (rarely) sparsely hairy ; whorls 4J, the spire whorls subplanulate, the last rapidty descending, suture deep ; umbilicus about one-third the total diameter, indistinctly perspective.

Diam. 4 mill. Arizona.

According to Mr. Ancey this species occurs also in Honduras.

H. FRIVALDSKYANA, Rossmassler. PI. 3, figs. 91-93.

Perspective^ umbilicated, lenticularly depressed, obtusely carinated, yellowish white, lightly costulate-striate ; whorls 5, convex. Diam. 9 mill.


Is H. convexa, Fer.

H. ABIETANA, Bourg. PI. 4, figs. 45-47.

Widely umbilicated, somewhat solid, translucent, corneous, flamed with fulvous, strongly costulate; whorls 6, convex, slowly increasing, suture deep, last whorl with obtusely subangulated periphery, not descending in front. Diam. 5 mill.

Algiers. H. ARROUXT, Bourguignat. PI. 4, fig. 56-58.

Openly umbilicated, depressed, fragile, subpellucid, thinly striulate ; fulvous chestnut, maculated with whitish, apex shining, blackish ; whorls 5J, a little convex, suture well im- pressed, last whorl obscurely subangulated, base convex.

Diam. 6 mill.

Berytus, Syria. H. CONCINNA, Lowe. PI. 3, figs. 94-96.

Widely umbilicated, rather solid, scarcely shining, light greenish corneous, closely plicate-cost ulate above, suture mod-


erate ; whorls 7J, very slowly increasing, a little convex, the last subcarinate above, not descending in front, base more con- vex, smoothish ; aperture somewhat obliquely lunar, margins

approaching. Diam. 8 mill.

Hierro, Canary Is. H. HERMANNI, Pfr. PI. 3, figs. 100, 1.

Widely umbilicated, discoidal, closely costulate above, a little shining, diaphanous, corneous; whorls 4^, a little convex, slowly increasing, the last narrow, more slightly costulate on the base ; umbilicus conical ; aperture subvertical, rounded-lunar, margins approaching. Diam. 2 mill.

Mirador, State of Vera Cruz, Mexico.

H. AMANCAENSIS, Hidalgo. PL 3, figs. 2, 3.

Widely, profoundly umbilicated, thin, very closely covered by hair-like costulations, brownish corneous, spire subplanate, suture profound ; whorls 5, slowly increasing, convex, narrow, the last scarcely wider than the penultimate. Diam. 2'5 mill.

Near Lima, Peru. H. HUMILIS, Button. PL 3, figs. 4-6.

Widely, profoundly umbilicated, striulate, diaphanous, a little shining, brownish corneous ; whorls 5, rounded, periphery sub- angulated. Diam. 3'3 mill.

Landour, Eastern India. H. COMA, Gray.

Widely umbilicated, rather thin, obliquely costulate, ribs dis- tant, straight, about nine in the tenth of an inch ; pale brown with bands of reddish brown, periphery rounded.

Diam. 5'5 mill.

New Zealand.

H. lau, Pfr., is a synonym. Unfigured : the H. coma, of Pfr., being a different species, referred to H. lucetta.

H. LUCETTA, Hutton. PL 3, figs. 7-9.

Ribs rather distant, about fifteen in the tenth of an inch, spire convex, more elevated than in the last species, periphery obscurely angled ; pale brown obscurely spotted. Diam. 7 mill.

New Zealand. H. coma, of Pfr., not Gray.

The animal is white, the peduncles purplish, and a band on each side of the head slightly speckled with purple.


H. VARICOSA, Pfr. PL 3, fig. 10.

Umbilicus moderate, spire slightly elevated, varicosely angu- lated by distant costae, not shining, fuscous ; whorls 4^-5, a little flattened, base somewhat flattened. Diam. 3*5 mill.

New Zealand.

H. GAMMA, Pfr. PI. 3, fig. 11.

Rather widely umbilicated, somewhat thin, very closely costulate-striate (about 30 in the tenth of an inch), diaphanous; light corneous, nebulously marked with chestnut; whorls 5, a little convex, slowly increasing, the last more convex below.

Diam. 3 mill.

New Zealand.

H. buccinella, Reeve, is a synonym.

H. ANGUICULUS, Reeve. PL 3, fig. 13.

Umbilicated, subdiscoidal, brownish with remote chestnut strigations, ribs about 33 in the tenth of an inch ; whorls 5, rounded. Diam. 2-5 mill.

New Zealand.

Is H. theta, Pfr. MS.

H. TAPIRINA, Hutton.

Ribs about 18 in the tenth of an inch, horny brown, obscurely banded with chestnut. Diam. 5 mill.

New Zealand.

More closely ribbed than H. coma, with which Hutton at first identified it. .Unflgured.

H. ZETA, Pfr. PL 3, fig. 14.

Widely umbilicated, subdiscoidal, somewhat solid, closely plicate, about 23 in the tenth of an inch, not shining, light yel- lowish, tessellated with large chestnut maculations, spire plane, subimmevsed in the middle, suture profound ; whorls 5^, very narrow, convex, the base more lightly plicate. Length, 3'6 mill.

New Zealand. H. infecta, Reeve, is a synonym.

H. EGESTA, Gray. PL 3, fig. 15.

Widely umbilicated, rather solid, regularly spirally sulcate, with distant radiating ribs ; reddish brown, sometimes mottled with yellowish ; whorls 5^, convex, the last narrow, often a little depressed in front. Diam. 4*3 mill. New Zealand.


H. ETA, Pfr. PI. 3, Hg. 12.

Rather widely umbilicated, depressed, silky, yellowish white, ribs very close, about 40 in the tenth of an inch, suture impressed ; whorls 4, barely convex, the last wider, depressed. Diam. 3 mill.

New Zealand.

H. corniculum, Reeve, is a synonym.

H. DIEMENENSIS, Cox. PI. 3, figs. 16-18.

Widely umbilicated, thin, translucid, with a number of some- what prominent subarcuate costulations, not shining, yellowish, radiately ornamented with chestnut strigations ; whorls 4 J, slowly increasing, a little convex, the last rounded at the periphery.

Diam. 9 mill.


This has been suspected to be a variety of the New Zealand H. coma, Pfr. not Gray = H. lucetta, Hutton. Mr. Petterd reduces the following Tasmanian species to synonyms of this : H. Thomsoni, H. Daveyensis, H. Atkinsoni, H. Camillas, and H. Wellingtonensis, Cox (figs. 17, 18).

H. CUPREA, Cox. PI. 3, figs. 21, 22.

Widely umbilicated, discoidal, copper-colored, shining, suture wide ; whorls 4^-5, moderately increasing, the last with rounded periphery, closely, lightly striate above and below, a little de- flected in front. Diam, 2-5 mill.

King George's Sound, Australia.

H. SATURNI, Cox. PI. 3, fig. 23.

Widely, perspectively umbilicated, discoidal, subconcave above, everywhere costulate, reddish corneous, a little shining ; whorls 5, convex, the last tumid, spire subimmersed, suture deep. Diam. 2'5 mill.

Sydney, Australia.

H. costulata, Cox, is a synonym.

H. BRAZIERI, Cox. PI. 4, figs. 24, 25.

Umbilicus perspective, very wide, plano-discoidal, thin, lightly, very closely costulate, the interstices decussated by slight lines, ash-color, with chestnut lines and strigations, spire plane, suture deep; whorls 5, regularly increasing, the last rounded, costulate below as above. Diam. 3'3 mill.

Cook's River, Sydney, Australia.


H. LIRATA, Cox. PI. 4, figs. 26, 27.

Widely, perspectively umbilicated, plano-discoidal, regularly strongly costate, chestnut corneous ; whorls 3^, the last rounded, spire subimmersed, suture profoundly impressed. Diam. 3 mill.

Sydney, Australia. H. STROUDENSIS, Cox. PL 4, figs. 28, 29.

Widely umbilicated, discoidal, thinly costulately striate, con- vex, suture impressed, brownish ; whorls 5, spire truncate.

Diam. 3 mill. Stroud, Port Stephens, Australia.*

H. PEXA, Cox. PL 4, figs. 30, 31.

Widely umbilicated, almost discoidal, thin, translucent, regu- larly, closely, arcuately costate, costse appearing as though in pairs, light j^ellowish corneous, spire plane, suture moderate; whorls 4, convex, the last narrow, rounded. Diam. 2 mill.

Greystanes, N. So. Wales. H. COCHLTDIUM, Cox. PI 4, figs. 32, 33.

Umbilicus wide, scarcely narrower at the bottom, shell thin, translucent, dull vitreous, with numerous thin, elevated, curved riblets, the interstices lightly, very minutely granulate and lineate ; white ; whorls 4-J, convex, spire plane, last whorl narrow, rounded, a little inflated and plicate below. Diam. 2*25 mill.

Clarence JRiver, Australia.

More strongly sculptured than H. pexa.

H. BELLI, Cox. PL 4, fig. 36.

Widely and perspectively umbilicated, discoidal, depressed and subconcave, regularly costellate, reddish chestnut color, a little shining ; whorls 5, somewhat convex, the last tumid, suture deeply impressed. Diam. 1-75 mill.

Sydney, Australia. H. COLLISI, Brazier. PL 5, figs. 79, 80.

Widely umbilicated, shining, yellowish corneous, lightly striate above, smooth below, suture strong impressed ; whorls 5, regularly increasing, convex, narrow, the last a little descend- ing, excavated around the umbilicus. Diam. 1'75 mill.

Ml. Wellington, Tasmania.

Described as H. minima, Cox, preoccupied by H. Adams for a Mauritian species.


H. DECRETA, Gassies. PI. 4, figs. 34, 35.

Widely umbilicated, lenticular, lightly striate, light corneous unicolored under a yellowish brown epidermis, scarcely shining; whorls 5', convex, the last slightly descending, suture linear.

Diam. 2 mill. New Caledonia.

H. SUBCOACTA, Gassies. PI. 4, figs. 48, 49.

Widely umbilicated, striulate, reddish brown, epidermis some- what wrinkled, hairy; whorls 5, regularly enlarging, the last scarcely descending, suture deep. Diam. 3 mill.

Ins. Art, N. Caledonia. H. LAMBERT:, Gassies. PI. 4, figs. 37, 38.

Yery widely umbilicated, depressed, subplane above, thin, pellucid, shining corneous, suture deep, surface longitudinally and spirally striated; whorls 5, rapidly increasing, rounded, the last not descending in front, aperture brownish. Diam. 8 mill.

Near Noumea, N. Caledonia. H. INCULTA, Gassies. PI. 4, fig. 51.

Umbilicated, lenticular, subcarinate, a little convex, thin, transversely flexuosely strigate, obscurely olivaceous under the epidermis ; whorls 3^-4^, rapidly increasing, the last descending, depressed above the middle, convex at base ; margins of peris- tome joined by a thin parietal callus. Diam. 6 mill.

New Caledonia. H. RUSTICULA, Gassies. PI. 16, figs. 71, 72.

Widely, deeply umbilicated, strongly, obliquely, lamellarly striated, reddish corneous or dark reddish; whorls 6, the last depressed, the suture deep, carinated. Diam. 8 mill.

Isle of Pines, New Caledonia. H. MELALEUCARUM, Gassies. PL 4, fig. 50.

Narrowly umbilicated, convex, flexuosely striated, dirty chestnut-color, apex yellowish, spire turbinate, suture profound; whorls 4, convex, regularly increasing, the last descending, per- iphery subcarinated, base flattened. Diam. 6'25 mill.

New Caledonia. H. DEMANI, Tapparone-Canefri. PI. 4, figs, 39-41.

Widely umbilicated, subobliquely closely costulate, corneous, subpellucid, spire almost immersed ; whorls 4, regularly enlarg-


ing, with very deep suture, last whorl not descending in front, peripher}' very obtusely subangulated. Diam. 1/25 mill.

Ins. Aru, New Guinea. H. CALDWELLT, Barclay. PI. 4, figs. 42-44.

Widely umbilicated, thin, arcuately costulate, fulvous cor- neous, waxy ; whorls 5^, with deep suture, the last depressed, base convex ; columella sinuous. Diam. 9 mill.


This is mentioned in Yol. ii.